Add the oil to the Instant Pot, turn on saute setting. Heat until shimmering.
Add the onion and garlic. Cook, stirring occasionally, until softened, about 4 minutes.
Stir in the chili powder and cumin. Cook until fragrant, about 30 seconds.
Add 1/4 cup of the chicken broth. Cook, gently scraping the bottom of the pot with a wooden spoon to loosen any stuck-on bits, and simmer for 1 minute.
Season the chicken with the salt and pepper. Add the chicken, beans, corn, salsa, and stir to combine.
Sprinkle the rice over the top. Pour the remaining 3/4 cup broth over the rice, but do not stir.
Using the manual setting, set the pressure to HIGH for 10 minutes. Close and lock the lid. It should take the pressure cooker about 10 to 12 minutes to come to pressure and begin the 10 minute countdown. When the cooking time is complete, do a quick release of the pressure.
Gently stir everything together. Divide between bowls and top with the cheese and cilantro.